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RF System Working Principle
- Oct 31, 2017 -

Radio frequency identification technology (RFID), is a new automatic identification technology developed in the 1980s, radio frequency identification technology is a use of radio frequency signals through the spatial coupling (alternating magnetic field or electromagnetic field) to achieve non-contact information transmission and through the transmission Of the information to achieve the purpose of identification technology.

RFID is a simple wireless system with only two basic devices for controlling, detecting and tracking objects. The system consists of an interrogator (or reader) and a lot of transponders (or tags).

Initially in the technical field, the transponder is an electronic module capable of transmitting information to reply to information. In recent years, due to the rapid development of RF technology, the transponder has a new statement and meaning, and is called a smart label or label. RFID reader identification reader (reader) through the antenna and RFID tags for wireless communication, can achieve the label identification code and memory data read or write operation. A typical reader contains high frequency modules (transmitters and receivers), control units, and reader antennas.

RFID radio frequency identification is a non-contact automatic identification technology, which automatically identifies the target through the RF signal and obtain the relevant data, identification work without human intervention, can work in a variety of harsh environments. RFID technology can identify high-speed moving objects and can identify multiple labels at the same time, quick and easy operation.

Tag (Tag): by the coupling components and chips, each label has a unique electronic code, attached to the object to identify the target object.

Reader (Reader): read (and sometimes can write) label information device, can be designed as handheld rfid reader (such as: C5000W) or fixed reader;

Antenna (Antenna): in the label and the reader to pass between the RF signal.

working principle

After entering the magnetic field, the tag receives the RF signal from the reader, sends the product information (Passive Tag, Passive Tag or Passive Tag) stored in the chip with the energy obtained by the induced current, or sends a frequency by the label. Signal (Active Tag, active tag or active label), the reader to read the information and decoding, sent to the central information system for data processing.

A complete RFID system consists of a reader (Reader) and an electronic tag (TAG), the so-called transponder (Transponder) and the application software system, which works by means of a specific frequency Radio wave energy to the Transponder, used to drive the Transponder circuit will send the internal data, then Reader will receive the interpretation of data in order to give the application to do the appropriate treatment.

RFID card reader and electronic tags between the communication and energy sensing approach can be roughly divided into: Inductive Coupling (Inductive Coupling) and Backscatter Coupling (BackscatterCoupling) two. Most low-frequency RFID generally use the first type, and most of the higher frequency of the second way.

The reader can be read or read / write devices depending on the structure and technology used, and is the RFID system information control and processing center. The reader is usually composed of a coupling module, a transceiver module, a control module and an interface unit. The reader and transponder typically use half-duplex communication for information exchange, while the reader provides the energy and timing by coupling to the passive transponder. In the practical application, it can further through Ethernet or WLAN to achieve the object identification information collection, processing and remote transmission and other management functions. The transponder is the information carrier of the RFID system. Most of the current transponders are composed of passive components (coil, microstrip antenna, etc.) and microchip.

RFID is a flexible application that is easy to manipulate, simple and practical and is particularly suitable for use in automation control. It does not require human intervention, it can support read-only mode of operation and support reading and writing mode, without contact or targeting; Can be free to work in a variety of harsh environments: short-range RF products are not afraid of grease, dust pollution and other harsh environments, you can replace the bar code, for example, used in the factory line to track objects; long-range RF products used for traffic, Up to tens of meters, such as automatic charges or identification of vehicle identity. Radio frequency identification system mainly has the following aspects of system advantages:

Easy to read: data read without light, or even through the packaging to carry out. Effective identification of a larger distance, with the battery comes with the active label, the effective identification distance can reach more than 30 meters;

Recognition speed: a tag into the magnetic field, the reader can immediately read the information, and can simultaneously handle multiple labels, to achieve bulk identification;

Data capacity: the largest data capacity of the two-dimensional bar code (PDF417), can only store up to 2725 numbers; if contains letters, the storage capacity will be less; RFID tags can be extended to the needs of users to dozens of K;

Long service life, wide range of applications: its radio communication, so that it can be applied to dust, oil and other high pollution environment and radioactive environment, and its closed packaging makes its life much larger than the printed bar code;

Tag data can be dynamically changed: the use of programmers can write data to the RFID tag to give interactive portable data files, and write time compared to print bar code less;

Better security: not only can be embedded or attached to different shapes, types of products, but also for the tag data read and write password protection, which has a higher security;

Dynamic real-time communication: The tag communicates with the reader at a frequency of 50 to 100 times per second. Therefore, as long as the object attached to the RFID tag appears within the valid range of the reader, it can dynamically track and monitor its position The